Nodulosum helminthosporium

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Climate requirements[ edit ] Finger millet is a short-day plant with a growing optimum 12 hours of daylight for most varieties. Its main growing area ranges from 20°N to nodulosum helminthosporium, meaning mainly the semiarid to arid tropics. Nevertheless, finger millet is found to be grown at 30°N in the Himalaya region India and Nepal.

It is generally considered as a drought-tolerant crop, but compared with other millets, such as pearl millet and sorghumit prefers moderate rainfall millimetres 20 in annually.

The majority of worldwide finger millet farmers grow it rainfed, although yields often can be significantly improved when irrigation is applied. In India, finger millet is a typical rabi dry-season crop.

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Heat tolerance of finger millet is high. For Ugandan finger millet varieties, for instance, the optimal average growth temperature ranges at about nodulosum helminthosporium, while the minimal temperatures should not be lower than 18 °C.

Relative to other species pearl millet and sorghumfinger millet has a higher tolerance to cool temperatures. It is grown from about to about m above sea level e.

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Hence, it can be cultivated on higher elevations than most tropical crops. Finger millet can grow on various soils, including highly weathered tropical lateritic soils.

Furthermore, it can tolerate soil salinity up to a certain extent. Its ability to bear waterlogging is limited, so good drainage of the soils and moderate water-holding capacity are optimal.

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In addition, intercropping with legumes, such as cowpea or pigeon peaare also quite common in East Africa. Tropical Central Africa supports scattered regions of finger millet intercropping mostly with legumesbut also with cassavaplantainand vegetables.

nodulosum helminthosporium

Its seeds are very small, which leads to a relatively slow development in early nodulosum helminthosporium stages. This makes finger millet a weak competitor for light, water, and nutrients compared with weeds.

Especially in early growing stages of the crop and the weed and when broadcast seeding instead of row seeding is applied as often the case in East Africathe two species are very difficult to distinguish.

Cultural methods could be sowing in rows instead of broadcast sowing to make distinction between finger millet seedlings and E. Physical weed control in financial resource-limited communities growing finger millet are mainly hand weeding or weeding with a hand hoe.

nodulosum helminthosporium

Nonetheless, nodulosum helminthosporium millet blast, caused nodulosum helminthosporium the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea anamorph Pyricularia griseacan locally cause severe damages, especially when untreated. The pathogen leads to drying out of leaves, neck rots, and ear rots. Finger millet blast can also infest finger nodulosum helminthosporium weeds nodulosum helminthosporium as the closely related E.

Cultural measures to control finger millet blast suggested by ICRISAT for Eastern Africa include crop rotations with nonhost crops such as legumesdeep ploughing under of finger millet straw on infected fields, washing of field tools after use to prevent dissemination of the pathogen to uninfected fields, weed control to reduce infections by weed hosts, and avoiding of high plant densities to impede the pathogen dispersal from plant to plant.

Another pathogen of relevance in the finger millet cultivation is the fungus Helminthosporium nodulosumcausing leaf blight. Sturmiopsis inferens. In rainfed cropping, four sowing methods are used: nodulosum helminthosporium Broadcasting: Seeds are directly sown in the field.

This is the common method because it is the easiest way and no special machinery is required. The organic weed management with this method is a problem, because it is difficult to distinguish between weed and crop. Line Sowing: Improved sowing compared to broadcasting.

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Facilitates nodulosum helminthosporium weed management due to better distinction of weed and crop. In this method, spacing of 22 cm to 30 cm between lines and 8 cm to 10 cm within lines should be maintained. The seeds should be sown about 3 cm deep in the soil.

Inducing Zoospores of Phytophthora

Drilling in rows: Seeds are nodulosum helminthosporium directly in the untreated soil by using a direct-seed drill. This method is used in conservation agriculture.

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Transplanting the seedlings: Raising the seedlings in nursery beds and transplant to the main field. Leveling and watering of beds is required during transplanting. Seedlings with 4 weeks age should be transplanted in the field.

nodulosum helminthosporium

For early Rabi and Kharif season, seedlings should be transplanted at 25 cm x 10 cm and for late Kharif season at 30 cm x 10 cm. Planting should be done 3 cm depth in the soil Harvest[ edit ] Finger millet sprays in Uganda Crop does not mature uniformly and hence the harvest is to be taken up in two stages.

At the first harvest, all earheads that have turned brown should be cut.

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After this drying, threshing and cleaning the grains by winnowing. The second harvest is around seven days after the first. All earheads, including the green ones, should be cut.

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The grains should then be cured to obtain maturity by heaping the harvested earheads in shade for one day without drying, so that the humidity and temperature increase and the grains get cured.

After this drying, threshing and cleaning as after the first harvesting. Finger millet can be kept for up to 10 years when it is unthreshed. Some sources report a storage duration up to 50 years under good storage conditions. However, finger millet is difficult to mill due to the small size of the seeds and because the bran is bound nodulosum helminthosporium tightly to the endosperm.

Furthermore, the delicate seed can get crushed during the milling.

Nodulosum helminthosporium

The development of commercial mechanical milling systems for finger millet is challenging. Therefore, the main product of finger millet is whole grain flour.

This has disadvantages, such as reduced storage time of the flour due to the high oil content. Furthermore, the industrial use of whole grain finger millet flour is limited. Moistening the millet seeds prior to grinding helps to remove the bran mechanically without causing damage to the rest of the seed.

The mini millet mill can also be used to process other grains such as wheat and sorghum.

nodulosum helminthosporium

Malting[ edit ] Another method to process the finger millet grain is germinating the seed. This process is also called malting and is very common in the production of brewed beverages such as beer. When finger millet is germinated, enzymes are activated, which transfer starches into other carbohydrates such as sugars.

nodulosum helminthosporium

Finger millet has a good malting activity. The malted finger millet can be used as a substrate to produce for example gluten-free beer or easily digestible food for infants.