Colorectal cancer us.
Abstract: The prognosis of colorectal cancer depends on a multitude of factors that can be grouped into several categories: tumor-related factors, clinical factors, histopathological factors, and biological factors oncogenetic and molecular. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death colorectal cancer us the world and affects both sexes equally.
Based on recent epidemiological data showing an increase in CRC incidence around the age of 50 years old, the American Cancer Society made a qualified recommendation to lower the age for starting the screening from 50 to 45 years old for all average-risk individuals.
Clinical factors are represented by: age, sex, complications, location of the primary tumor, symptoms and perioperative blood transfusions. Factors related to the primary tumor are classified according to tumor stage, tumor size, invasion of peritoneal serosa and adjacent organs, appearance of primary tumor, degree of obstruction of the rectal lumen, and resection margins that may influence residual tumor occurrence. Biochemical and genetic factors may mark the presence of tumor recurrence by increasing the CEA embryonic carcinoma marker.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of colonoscopy as the screening test in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of CRC patients.
Predictive histopathological factors are: invasion of regional lymph nodes, degree of tumor differentiation, perineural, vascular and lymphatic invasion, budding phenomenon, colorectal cancer us immune reaction and the evidence of tumor cells. Cancerul colorectal este a doua cauză de deces în lume şi afectează în proporţie egală ambele sexe.
Factorii clinici sunt reprezentaţi de: vârstă, sex, prezenţa complicaţiilor, localizarea tumorii primare, simptomatolgia şi transfuziile de sânge perioperator. Factorii ce ţin de tumora primară sunt clasificaţi în funcţie de stadiul tumoral, dimensiunea tumorii, invazia seroasei peritoneale şi a organelor adiacente, aspectul tumorii primare, gradul de obstrucţie a lumenului rectului şi marginile de rezecţie care pot influenţa apariţia tumorii reziduale. Factorii biochimici şi genetici pot marca prezenţa recidivei tumorale prin creşterea markerului CEA carcinom embrionar.
Factorii histopatologici predictivi sunt: invadarea limfonodulilor regionali, gradul de diferenţiere a tumorii, invazia perineurală, vasculară, limfatică, fenomenul de înmugurire, reacţia imună peritumorală şi evidenţierea celulelor tumorale.
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